Ladakh is the part of the Indus Valley between Karu and Khalse (where the road from Srinagar arrives ). Sheltered in the north by the Ladakh range and in the south by the Zanskar mountains. There is very lilttle rainfall. The Indus already 500 kilometres from its source, flows through wild country-side between halse and Leh. Upstream, above the Capital, it waters a broad plain where are many beautiful oases. In some of the side valley we discover more oases, Lah being the biggest, and even here and there a village.

The biggest monasteries and village are in this region. They can easily be reached by a network of roads and carriage.

Spiti Valley is formed by the Spiti river, which rises on the slopes of Kunzum La (455m) and ends of the river's confluence with the pare Chu near Sumdo (3230m). The length of the valley from Kunzum pass to Sumdo is about 150 km. On its way, the Spiti river receives the water of many streams, of which Guindi Nala, Pari Lungbi Chuh, Pinti river and Lingti are the most important.

Pari Lungbi valley, Pin valley and Lungti valleys are only partly inhabited. Besides these, there are other side valleys that, due to their high elevation and rigorous cliamte, are not inhabited at all.

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